The Show Notes: Rabbit Hole of Research Episode 10: Time Travel is Weird

Nick and I talk about the Event Horizon, Groundhog Day, Evil Dead, Somewhere in Time, Final Destination, Handwavium, Encyclopedia Britannica, Handwashing, Video Game logic and more spacetime stuff.

Print By Georgia Geis @ atomic_number14

Episode 10: Time Travel is Weird

This has no particular format; it’s just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always, feel free to comment, and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy. 

Don’t forget to Rate the show!

artwork by 

Georgia Geis@atomicnumber14

Say hello and let us know:

If you traveled through time what Three Books would you take?

Favorite Time Travel Machine?

Is driving a car considered time travel?

What we drinking?

Nick and Joe shared a celebratory Leche Borracho: Bottle Logic Brewing

Images from the Fan Event held at Bean Me Up Roastery. And if you missed it, don’t worry we will do one again for our 1 year podcast anniversary!

Joe’s Show Notes:

Time travelrefers to the hypothetical concept of moving between different points in time, either forwards or backwards.

What is a black hole? a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, including light and other electromagnetic waves, is capable of possessing enough energy to escape it.

What is a wormhole? a hypothetical structure connecting disparate points in spacetime, and is based on a special solution of the Einstein field equations

In Einstein’s theory of general relativity, making a wormhole is pretty straightforward: You just build a black hole and connect it to a hypothetical white hole (which is the exact opposite of a black hole), and boom, there you have it: a tunnel through space-time.

What is a white hole? a hypothetical region of spacetime and singularity that cannot be entered from the outside, although energy-matter, light and information can escape from it.

What is spacetime? a mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum

The Year Ash ended up in Evil Dead 3 is 1300 AD: Army Of Darkness

Evil Dead Timeline.

Time Bandits (1981)

We realized after recording it wasn’t Miracle on 34th street but It’s a Wonderful Life (the Christmas movie I was thinking about.)

HG Wells Time Machine movies; 1960 and 2002

Is Final Destination a Time Travel Movie?

The Encyclopedia Britannica 15th edition with 32 volumes was last printed in 2010.

The Cotton Club

Kitty Pride Time travel by phasing.

The Flash time travel and the Multiverse.

Let The Ants Try. 1949 by Frederik Pohl (as James MacCreigh)

Young Marvels by Skottie Young, Dan Slott, Ruben Diaz

Earth has a rotational kinetic energy of 2.14×10^29 J. So You’d need a minimum of twice that much energy to stop and then start Earth rotating in the opposite direction.

Somewhere in Time (1980)

Superman: The Movie (1978)

Christopher Reeve

History of time travel Movie (2014)

See You Yesterday (2019)Produced by Spike Lee

Horology: the study of time and the art of measuring it. It involves the design, construction, and maintenance of clocks, watches, and other timepieces.

Chronometrythe science of accurate time measurement


  1. Hindu mythology, the Vishnu Purana mentions the story of King Raivata Kakudmi, who travels to heaven to meet the creator Brahma and is surprised to learn when he returns to Earth that many ages have passed.
  2. The Buddhist Pāli Canon mentions the relativity of time. The Payasi Sutta tells of one of the Buddha’s chief disciples, Kumara Kassapa, who explains to the skeptic Payasi that time in the Heavens passes differently than on Earth.
  3. The Japanese tale of “Urashima Tarō“, first described in the Manyoshu tells of a young fisherman named Urashima-no who visits an undersea palace. After three days, he returns home to his village and finds himself 300 years in the future, where he has been forgotten, his house is in ruins, and his family has died.
  4. In Jewish tradition, the 1st-century BC scholar Honi ha-M’agel is said to have fallen asleep and slept for seventy years. When waking up he returned home but found none of the people he knew, and no one believed his claims of who he was.

Early examples of Prolonged Sleep Time Travel

  1. The Year 2440: A Dream If Ever There Was One, (1770) by Louis-Sébastien Mercier.
  2. Rip Van Winkle (1819) by Washington Irving
  3. Looking Backward (1888) by Edward Bellamy
  4. When the Sleeper Awakes (1899) by H. G. Wells

Early examples of Backward Time Travel

  1. Chinese novel Supplement to the Journey to the West (c. 1640) by Dong Yue features magical mirrors and jade gateways that connect various points in time
  2. Samuel Madden’s Memoirs of the Twentieth Century (1733) is a series of letters from British ambassadors in 1997 and 1998 to diplomats in the past, conveying the political and religious conditions of the future.
  3. Charles Dickens’s A Christmas Carol (1843) has early depictions of mystical time travel in both directions.

Early examples of Machine Based Time Travel

  1. The Clock that Went Backward by Edward Page Mitchell,which appeared in the New York Sun in (1881).
  2. Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau’s El Anacronópete (1887) may have been the first story to feature a vessel engineered to travel through time.
  3. H. G. Wells’ The Time Machine (1895) popularized the concept of time travel by mechanical means.

Time Travel Paradoxes

1. Grandfather Paradox: As mentioned earlier, the grandfather paradox involves a time traveler going back in time and preventing their own grandfather from meeting their grandmother, thereby preventing their own birth. This creates a logical contradiction because if the time traveler prevents their own birth, they would not exist to travel back in time in the first place.

2. Bootstrap Paradox: In a bootstrap paradox, an object or information is sent back in time, creating a loop where the object’s origin cannot be determined. For example, a person might travel back in time and give their past self a book containing information about the future. The question then arises: where did the book come from if it was never created?

3. Predestination Paradox: Also known as a causal loop, the predestination paradox occurs when a time traveler’s actions in the past inadvertently contribute to the events they were trying to prevent. This paradox suggests that events are predestined to happen in a certain way, regardless of attempts to change them.

4. Ontological Paradox: Similar to the bootstrap paradox, an ontological paradox involves objects or information that exist without having a discernible origin. For example, a person might receive instructions or blueprints from their future self, allowing them to create a new invention. However, the question remains: who originally created the instructions if they were never created by anyone?

5. Twin Paradox: In the context of special relativity, the twin paradox arises when one twin travels through space at relativistic speeds while the other remains on Earth. When the traveling twin returns, they find that less time has passed for them than for their sibling. This paradox challenges our intuitive understanding of time dilation and the effects of relative motion.

The idea of reversing the rotation of the Earth to travel back in time—pure Handwavium

1. Conservation of Energy and Momentum: Reversing the rotation of the Earth would require an enormous amount of energy and would violate the principles of conservation of energy and momentum. Even if it were somehow possible to reverse the rotation of the Earth, it would not cause time to flow backward.

2. Time and Spacetime: In physics, time is considered a dimension of spacetime, and reversing the rotation of the Earth would not alter the direction of time. Time is a fundamental aspect of the universe that flows inexorably forward, regardless of the rotation or movement of celestial bodies.

3. Causality and Paradoxes: Even if it were possible to reverse the rotation of the Earth and somehow manipulate time, it would likely lead to paradoxes and inconsistencies in causality. The implications of reversing time would raise significant philosophical and theoretical questions about the nature of reality.

Print by Georgia Geis @atomic_number14

Okay, that’s it for this episode. How’d we do?

You can always email (I do answer back), click the comment link below, or follow me online for real time tracking. 

The Show Notes: Rabbit Hole of Research Episode 9: Sleep Studies and Dreams

Joe, Nick and Georgia talk sleep, Chianti & fava beans, brain rinsing, They Live, Inception, lucid dreaming, noisy ice, John Wick’s dreams, Nick’s research, Jacob’s ladder, sleep paralysis, and more.

Episode 9 – Sleep Studies

This has no particular format; it’s just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always, feel free to comment, and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy. 

Don’t forget to Rate the show!

artwork by 

Georgia Geis@atomicnumber14

*Both Joe and Georgia have notes below

Say hello and let us know:

Do you take naps?

Can you lucid dream?

Do you have a favorite Sleep or Dream inspired movie or novel?

What we drinking?

Joe- insufficient clearance — Sketchbook brewery

Nick- Matcha Martian —Bean Me Up Roastery

Georgia — Watermelon White Claw

Joe’s Show Notes:


(own-I-rology) the scientific study of dreams.


known as a sleep study, is a test used to diagnose sleep disorders.

Famous Sleep Studies

  1. The Sleepless Elite (2014)
  2. The “Fatal Familial Insomnia” Case Studies (1980s)
  3. The Randy Gardner Experiment (1960s): stayed awake for 264.4 hours (11 days and 24 minutes) as part of a science fair project
  4. The “Sleepless in San Diego” Study (2002)

Sleep paralysis

Sleep deprivation

Sleepwalking killer Scott Falater

Sleepwalker’ Acquitted of Murdering Mother-in-Law After 15-Mile Drive

Lucid Dreaming

Sleep is crucial

Mantis from the MCU

Hormones Makes us Sleepy

Circadian rhythms

Do Other Animals Dream

does lunar phases effect sleep?

Pain receptors in brain?

Staying active during brain surgery, playing instruments

They Live (1988)

“The computer says no”—Little Britain show

Sundowners syndrome

Marvel’s Sleepwalker Character

Marvel’s Nightmare Character

If you die in dream do you die in real life

Georgia’s Tid Bits

Washing Brain During Sleep 

Nightmare On Elm Street: True Story

Jacob’s Ladder:Dreams and Consciousness,Hollywood-Style by Kelly Bulkley

Jacob’s Ladder- Movie

MIT in Fluid Interfaces

New device can control your dreams: Marketers try to hack the brain!

Taking the perfect nap by NPR

Print by Georgia Geis @atomic_number14

Okay, that’s it for this episode. How’d we do?

You can always email (I do answer back), click the comment link below, or follow me online for real time tracking. 

The Show Notes: Rabbit Hole of Research Episode 8: Teleportation

Nick, Evan and Joe talk about teleportation, the last perfect 8 minutes on Earth, Event Horizon, Michael Myers, The Matrix, Harry Potter, Jumper, and lots of love for Jeff Goldblum!

This has no particular format; it’s just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always, feel free to comment, and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy. 

Don’t forget to Rate the show!

artwork by 

Georgia Geis@atomicnumber14

Say hello and let us know:

Favorite movie, show or book that uses teleportation?

Is Jumper a good movie?


What we drinking?

Joe: Zombie Dankness: Beer Zombies

Nick: Braaaaaaaains: Drekker Brewing 

Evan: Journeyman Whiskey

Teleportation definition 

  1. A fictional transfer of matter or energy from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them.
  2. Often paired with time travel.
  3. There is no known physical mechanism that would allow for matter teleportation.
  4. Teleportation cannot be instantaneous because you can not travel faster than light. 

Philadelphia Experiment

Teleportation in Harry Potter Series:

  1. Harry Porter and the Goblet of Fire
  2. Foo Network: fire place teleportation
  3. Portke
  4. Kings Cross Train Station: Platform Nine and Three Quarters

Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

Packets of information being sent into space revealing Earth’s position to aliens

3 Body Problem

Ship of Theseus

The Fly goofs

Number of atoms in human body

How long does it take to get from Philippines to Mexico?

~6 hours by plane

~24 days by ship

Early examples of teleportation in science fiction 

1. The earliest recorded story of a “matter transmitter” was Edward Page Mitchell‘s “The Man Without a Body” in 1877. Not to be confused with the 1956 B-sci-fi film. 

2. 1897 novel To Venus in Five Seconds by Fred T. Jane. Jane’s protagonist is transported from a strange-machinery-containing gazebo on Earth to planet Venus – hence the title.

Wolverine movie with

X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009)


Seeks to create quantum measurements and imaging systems that exceed classical limits to extract novel information from biology.

Classic Physics

Quantum Mechanics

Photoelectric effect—early 1900s—

Albert Einstein won Nobel for his theories about the photoelectronic effect. 

Albert Einstein described his most famous formula in the forth paper he published.

Quantum entanglement

Einstein called it: spooky action at a distance. 

Quantum entanglement was first recognized by Einstein, Podolsky, Roson and Schrodinger.

Quantum teleportation 

Teleportation is Possible, but only in Quantum

Quantum information

Print by Georgia Geis @atomic_number14

Okay, that’s it for this episode. How’d we do?

You can always email (I do answer back), click the comment link below, or follow me online for real time tracking. 

Rabbit Hole of Research: The Show Notes: Episode 7: Lighthouses

Joe, Nick, and Georgia talk about the science of Lighthouses, Statue of Liberty, Day of the Triffids, Annihilation, Shutter Island, Fresnel, and other facts that will make you an expert pharologist.

This has no particular format; it’s just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always, feel free to comment, and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy. 

Don’t forget to Rate the show!

artwork by 

Georgia Geis@atomicnumber14

Say hello and let us know:

Favorite movie that features a Lighthouse?

Did you know what a Pharologist was before listening to the episode?

What we drinking?

Joe: Spiritless Old Fashioned

Nick: Full Pocket Pilsner: Goose Island

Georgia: Water

**Spoiler alert: I talk about The Day of the Triffids (1963) in this episode. 

Lighthouse fun facts

1. 800 still exist in US even though modern technologies exist to fulfill their purpose of guiding ships. 

2. Michigan has over 100 lighthouses, more than any state in US

3. [Boston Light]— 1716 US first official lighthouse built on little Brewster island, Boston harbor. Original destroyed during Revolutionary War—rebuilt in 1783–raises to current height in 1859 adding a Fresnel Lens. 

4. I love you lighthouse: [Minot’s Ledge Light], southeast of Boston Harbor has the “I Love You” light characteristic (1,4,3 light pattern). The current lighthouse is the second on the site, the first having been washed away in a storm after only a few months of use.

5. First lighthouse in America to use electricity was a metal tower in the shape of a woman in New York Harbor. It’s called the [Statue of Liberty]. 

6. Lighthouses also had to use sound to guide ships through fog—foghorns, bells, cannons, etc. 

7. Boston Light only lighthouse still staffed in America. 

Lighthouse keepers that disappeared

Pharology : Study of lighthouses

Lighthouse science:

First lighthouse

Famous lighthouses

Famous lighthouse operators and innovators

Movies that feature a lighthouse

  1. “Annihilation” (2018) – Directed by Alex Garland, this film features a mysterious lighthouse at the center of an otherworldly phenomenon.
  2. The Lighthouse” (2019) – Although more of a psychological horror film, “The Lighthouse,” directed by Robert Eggers, incorporates elements of fantasy and surrealism.
  3. Shutter Island” (2010) – Directed by Martin Scorsese, this psychological thriller has elements of science fiction and features a lighthouse prominently in its storyline.
  4. “The Fog” (1980) – Directed by John Carpenter, this horror film revolves around a mysterious fog that rolls into a coastal town, and the town’s lighthouse plays a significant role.
  5. The Day of the Triffids (1963) —a British science fiction horror film directed by Steve Sekely and Freddie Francis, very loosely based on the 1951 novel of the same name by John Wyndham. 
Print by Georgia Geis @atomic_number14

Okay, that’s it for this episode. How’d we do?

You can always email (I do answer back), click the comment link below, or follow me online for real time tracking.

Rabbit Hole of Research the Podcast: Episode 6: Zombies: The Show Notes

Nick and Joe talk about Zombies. Fast zombies, slow zombies, Walking Dead, The Last of Us, Thanos’ snap, arachnids, The Thing, and do corn tortillas taste like flesh?

This has no particular format; it’s just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always, feel free to comment, and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy. 

Don’t forget to Rate the show!

artwork by 

Georgia Geis@atomicnumber14

Say hello and let us know:

Are you on team Fast Zombies or Team Slow Zombies?

What’s your favorite Zombie movie or book?

How long would you make it after the Zombie Apocalypse starts?

What we drinking?

Joe: Bake and Break DIPATrillum Brewing company and Brockton Brewing Company

Nick: Calm Before the StormJ. Wakefield Brewing

**Around 27 mins Nick tries to become a zombie by swallowing the yeast plug in the bottom of his beer!

Jason and the Argonauts (1963): The Children of Hydra’s Teeth

ZNation (2014-2018) is the tv show Joe was thinking about 

Some favorite Zombie movies and series:

Night of the living dead (1968)

Dawn of the Dead (1978)

Night of the Living Dead (1968)

Shaun of the Dead (2004)

28 Days Later (2002)

World War Z (2013)

Train to Busan (2016)

Zombieland (2009)

Resident Evil (2002)

The Walking Dead (2010-2022)

The Last of Us

Walking Dead

I zombie

Favorite Zombie Books:

Dead City Series by Joe McKinney

Feed Trilogy Mira Grant (Seanan McGuire)

Rot and Ruin by Jonathan Maberry

Day by Day Armageddon by J. L. Bourne

The Walking Dead series by Robert Kirkman

Pride and Prejudice and Zombies by Seth Grahame-Smith

World War Z and Zombie Survival Guide by Max Brooks

The Girl with All the Gifts by M.R. Carey

The Living Dead by George A. Romero and Daniel Kraus.

Print by Georgia Geis @atomic_number14

Science behind zombies in Return of the living dead (1985)

Real world basis of 245 toxin 

The concept of 2-4-5 Trioxin is based in part on Agent Orange, a real-life defoliant used by the Army during the Vietnam War. The two chemicals share a number of similarities: both were used against plants by the United States Army during the 1960s, and both proved to have horrifying side effects. One of the two chemicals used to produce Agent Orange is called 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Agent Orange also contained chemicals known as dioxins.

2-4-5 Trioxin should not be mistaken for the real chemical trioxane, which is used by morticians to repair cells and maintain a corpse’s contours after postmortem tissue constriction.

Zombies generally meet three important criteria. 

They are 1) stimulus-response creatures that seek flesh 2) continually decomposing and 3) contagious via bodily fluids. 

If we can explain, reasonably, how and for what reason a pathogen might cause/allow these conditions, we can describe a realistic zombie pathogen.

What is zombie pathogen?

A zombie pathogen must 1) be transmitted via bodily-fluids to 2) ensure sufficient and total infection which 3) is always fatal due to the fact that pathogen must 4) either consume the host or host-acquired flesh 5) hijack all the necessary functions for movement and sensation 6) provide at least some nutrients to itself and the body 7) allow continued movement and 8.) slow the decomposition of the host body.

How easy is it to infect brain?

In general, it is not easy for infectious agents to directly infect the brain. The brain is protected by several barriers that limit the entry of pathogens, including the blood-brain barrier and the meninges (the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord).

However, some viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites can cause infections that can potentially spread to the brain if they cross these protective barriers. Examples of infectious agents that can cause brain infections include:

Viruses such as herpes simplex virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus, and rabies virus

Bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus

Parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum (the parasite that causes malaria)

The ease with which an infectious agent can infect the brain depends on various factors, including the virulence of the pathogen, the route of infection, and the immune status of the individual. In general, infections that affect the respiratory system, bloodstream, or nervous system are more likely to spread to the brain than infections that affect other parts of the body

Print by Georgia Geis @atomic_number14

Methods of infection?


The speed at which you can be infected by bacteria depends on a number of factors, including the type of bacteria, the route of exposure, and the individual’s immune system. In some cases, bacteria can infect a person almost immediately after exposure, while in other cases, it may take longer for symptoms to appear.

For example, some bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, can cause an infection within a few hours of exposure, particularly if they enter the body through a wound or other opening in the skin. Other bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis, can take several weeks or even months to cause an infection.

The severity of the infection can also depend on the individual’s immune system. In healthy individuals with strong immune systems, the body can often fight off bacterial infections before they become serious. However, individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy, may be more susceptible to bacterial infections and may develop symptoms more quickly.

It’s important to note that not all bacteria are harmful and can cause infections. In fact, many bacteria are beneficial to the body and play important roles in digestion, immunity, and other functions.


The speed at which you can be infected by a virus depends on a variety of factors, including the type of virus, the route of transmission, and the strength of your immune system.

For example, some viruses can be transmitted through the air and can infect you within seconds of being exposed to them. Other viruses may be transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids or surfaces, and may take longer to infect you.

The length of time between being infected with a virus and developing symptoms can vary depending on several factors, including the type of virus, the route of transmission, and individual differences in immune response.

In some cases, symptoms may appear within a few days of being infected with a virus. For example, symptoms of the flu typically develop within 1-4 days after exposure to the virus. Other viruses, such as HIV, may take longer to produce symptoms, with some individuals not experiencing symptoms for several years.

It’s also important to note that some individuals may be asymptomatic carriers of a virus, meaning they are infected but do not show any symptoms. These individuals can still transmit the virus to others, making it important to take precautions to prevent the spread of infection.


The length of time between exposure to a fungal infection and the onset of symptoms can vary depending on several factors, including the type of fungus involved, the individual’s overall health and immune system, and the severity of the infection.

In some cases, symptoms may develop within a few days of exposure, while in others, it may take weeks or even months for symptoms to appear. Some fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, can cause symptoms that are similar to those of a cold or flu and may go undiagnosed for a long time.

Infecting the Brain

Fungus infect brain:

While it is rare, some types of fungi can invade the brain and cause serious infections. This is known as fungal meningitis or fungal encephalitis, depending on the specific part of the brain that is affected.

Fungal meningitis is an infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord, while fungal encephalitis is an infection of the brain tissue itself. These infections can be caused by several types of fungi, including Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and Candida, among others.

Symptoms of fungal meningitis or encephalitis can include fever, headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and seizures. These infections are considered medical emergencies and require prompt treatment with antifungal medications.

Virus and bacteria brain infection:

Yes, bacteria and viruses can infect the brain, and such infections are referred to as central nervous system (CNS) infections. These infections can cause a range of symptoms and may be serious or even life-threatening.

Bacterial infections of the brain are often caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. These bacteria can cause meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, and encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain tissue itself.

Viral infections of the brain can be caused by a range of viruses, including herpes simplex virus, West Nile virus, and Zika virus. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and paralysis.

Organisms that can infect your brains:


This is an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite can enter the brain and cause encephalitis, which can lead to seizures and neurological symptoms.


This is an infection caused by the parasite Plasmodium, which is transmitted by mosquito bites. In severe cases, malaria can cause cerebral malaria, which is characterized by seizures, coma, and other neurological symptoms.

Naegleria fowleri

This is a type of amoeba that can enter the brain through the nose and cause a rare but often fatal infection called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

Taenia solium

This is a tapeworm that can cause neurocysticercosis, which occurs when tapeworm larvae infect the brain and form cysts. This can cause seizures, headaches, and other neurological symptoms.

It’s important to note that these infections are relatively rare, and many can be prevented through proper hygiene, avoiding contaminated water sources, and using insect repellent when necessary.

Cordyceps — not humans, but ants — still cool

is a type of fungus that belongs to the Ascomycota division. The growth rate of Cordyceps can vary depending on the species, growth conditions, and availability of nutrients.

In general, Cordyceps grows relatively slowly compared to some other fungal species. Under optimal conditions, it may take several weeks or even months for Cordyceps to grow to its full size. This slow growth rate is partly due to the fact that Cordyceps requires a host organism, such as an insect or other arthropod, in order to complete its life cycle.

Once the Cordyceps spores infect the host, it can take several days to weeks for the fungus to grow and spread throughout the host’s body. The fungus then produces a fruiting body, which is the visible part of the fungus that emerges from the host’s body. The fruiting body can take several weeks to fully mature and release its spores, which can then infect new hosts and continue the cycle of growth and reproduction

Print by Georgia Geis @atomic_number14

Voodoo Zombies

Voodoo zombies are a concept in Haitian Vodou, a religion that originated in Haiti. In the context of Vodou, a zombie is a person who has been brought back to life through supernatural means by a Vodou practitioner, known as a bokor.

Contrary to popular culture, Vodou zombies are not typically portrayed as mindless, flesh-eating monsters. Instead, they are said to be under the control of the bokor who reanimated them and are often used as slaves or laborers.

The process of creating a zombie involves administering a powerful hallucinogenic drug, called tetrodotoxin, to the victim. This drug induces a state of apparent death, which can last for several hours. The bokor then revives the victim using various methods, such as CPR or a special potion, and places them under their control.

It’s worth noting that the concept of zombies in Vodou has been widely misunderstood and sensationalized by popular culture, leading to many misconceptions about the religion and its practices.

VoodooZombies in Fiction

The movie “The Serpent and the Rainbow” (1985) tells the story of a Harvard scientist who travels to Haiti to investigate the creation of voodoo zombies.

The movie “White Zombie” (1932), which is widely considered to be the first zombie film ever made.

Okay, that’s it for this episode. How’d we do?

You can always email (I do answer back), click the comment link below, or follow me online for real time tracking.

Rabbit Hole of Research the Podcast: Episode 5: Mutants! The Show Notes

This has no particular format; it’s just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always, feel free to comment, and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy.

artwork by 

Georgia Geis@atomicnumber14

Say hello and let us know:

Who your favorite mutant is?

Favorite Cereal/food to eat while watching cartoons?

Excited about X-men 97?

What are we drinking:

Joe and Nick: Insufficient Clarence: Sketchbook Brewery

Genotype vs phenotype

Genotype is an organisms unique sequence of DNA. 

Phenotype is the observable expression of this genotype – a person’s presentation.


Hereditary mutations (germ line) vs Somatic mutations (non-germ line cells)



is a physical or chemical agent that permanently changes genetic material, usually DNA, in an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.


any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis (Cancer). 


substances that may cause non-heritable birth defects via a toxic effect on an embryo or fetus.


Predisposed for cancer?

Cancer from secondhand smoke.

Peppered Moth’s adaptation during Industrial Revolution

Evolutionary changes of African Elephant thank size due to poaching

Wolves adapt to radiation at Chernobyl

Marvel Unique Mutants: 


A mutant with the ability to transform her body into a pliable cloud of dust. 

Bailey Hoskins: Worst X-man ever

A mutant with the worst power of self-detonation which he could only use once, since this power could kill him

Fallout series video game

Legacy virus

The Legacy Virus was based on a virus created by Apocalypse in the distant future, which was intended to kill the remaining non-mutants.

Stryfe engineered the Legacy virus to kill mutants. In the beginning the virus was only targeting mutants but it jumped to humans

Comic series cured by Colossus and in X:Men animated series it was Wolverine was used by Cable to generate a cure (utilizing wolverine’s healing factor).

Can we create a Real Wolverine 

Healing factor 

Wolverine has healing factor: he can heal from any injury or disease. Yet, there are a number of inconstancies. Also, Wolverine has bones fused with Adamantium (a virtually indestructible steel alloy named after the fabled metal Adamantine of Greek mythology).

All about Bones:

What are Bones made of? Our bones have metal: calcium, trace metals like copper, zinc, magnesium 

Bones are needed to act as a calcium sink

Metal to Bone fusing

Osseointegration (from Latin osseus “bony” and integrare “to make whole”) is the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant

Osseointegration was first observed—albeit not explicitly stated—by Bothe, Beaton, and Davenport in 1940

What happens if you coat bones in metal?

Adamantium ripped from his body by Magneto’s powers: Wolverine #75

Human genotypes/phenotypes similar Marvel’s Nightcrawler

Humans born with tails

Pointy ears

Blue skin

Fused/ Webbed fingers

Gus Gormon played by Richard Pryor in Superman III makes fake Kryptonite and creates Evil Superman.

DC doesn’t have mutants, but Metahumans. But a metahuman by any other name is still a mutant.

Godzilla clone: Space Godzilla

Movie: Gattaca (1997)

Book: Brave New World by Aldous Huxley 1932:

Hearing loss

Hair cells

Genetic hearing loss restored with gene therapy

Old age hearing loss

Alzheimer’s treatment disparities

Alzheimer’s drug trials plagued by lack of racial diversity

Movie: Rise of Planet of the Apes (2011)

Okay, that’s it for this episode. How’d we do?

You can always email (I do answer back), click the comment link below, or follow me online for real time tracking.

Rabbit Hole of Research Podcast Episode 4: Giant Animals Show Notes

Episode 4: The Show Notes

This has no particular format; it’s just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always, feel free to comment, and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy.

What we drinking:

Joe: Phony Negroni —St. Argrestis

Nick: Water

Let us know:

What’s your favorite animal?

What’s your favorite giant animal movie?

Favorite color?

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Show notes:

Technically any plane carrying the president is designated as Air Force One:

Air Force One (1997) movie

What is Dry January

Food of the Gods 1976 movie 

Food of the Gods Novel by H.G. Wells

Art by Georgia Geis @atomic_number14

Let the Ants Try by Frederik Pohl (short story)

Where do sloths live?

Sloths are found throughout Central America and northern South America, including parts of Brazil and Peru

Who sings song—“You and me, baby, ain’t nothin’ but mammals So let’s do it like they do on the Discovery Channel”? 

Bloodhound Group—‘The Bad Touch’ 

Aldi and Trader Joe’s history

E. L. Doctorow: Homer and Langley—universal newspaper

Seanan McGuire (Mira Grant) Into the Drowning Deep

Pushing beached whales into ocean?

Whalefall—Daniel Kraus 

Largest land animal

The African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) holds the title for the largest land animal. Adult male African elephants can weigh between 5,000 to 14,000 pounds (2,268 to 6,350 kilograms) and stand about 8.2 to 13 feet (2.5 to 4 meters) tall at the shoulder. Female African elephants are generally smaller than males but still large compared to other land animals.

It’s worth noting that the size of elephants can vary, and these measurements are approximate. The African Elephant’s large size is a testament to its adaptation to diverse habitats across the African continent.

Largest sea animal

The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) holds the title for the largest sea animal and, in fact, the largest animal on Earth. Adult blue whales can reach lengths of up to 100 feet (30 meters) and weigh as much as 200 tons. These enormous marine mammals are filter feeders, primarily consuming small shrimp-like animals called krill.

The sheer size of blue whales is remarkable, and they are found in oceans around the world, making them a truly global species. Despite their massive size, blue whales are gentle creatures, and their conservation status is classified as endangered due to historical whaling practices. Conservation efforts are ongoing to protect and preserve these magnificent marine animals.

The size of animals is constrained by various biological, ecological, and physical factors. Some limitations include:

1. Metabolic Demands: Larger animals generally have higher metabolic demands. Meeting these demands becomes challenging, as it requires sufficient food intake, efficient energy utilization, and effective waste removal.

2. Support Structures: The strength of bones, muscles, and other support structures is crucial. Beyond a certain size, the ability to support the body’s weight becomes a limiting factor.

3. Respiratory System: Diffusion-based respiratory systems become less effective as an organism grows larger. Efficient gas exchange becomes challenging, potentially limiting the maximum size of animals relying on this mechanism.

4. Heat Dissipation: Larger animals face challenges in dissipating heat efficiently. This is due to the decrease in surface area relative to volume, affecting heat exchange with the environment.

5. Reproductive Challenges: Larger animals often have fewer offspring and longer gestation periods. This could impact reproductive strategies and population dynamics.

6. Predator-Prey Dynamics: Size affects the ability to evade predators or capture prey. Both extreme sizes, very large or very small, can be disadvantageous in certain ecological niches.

7. Evolutionary Pressures: Evolutionary pressures may favor smaller sizes in specific environments, promoting agility, rapid reproduction, and adaptability over large size.

8. Ecological Niche: Each species occupies a specific ecological niche, and the size of an organism is often adapted to its role in the ecosystem. Deviating too much from the optimal size for a given niche could be disadvantageous.


• Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1984). Scaling: Why is Animal Size So Important? Cambridge University Press.

The size of insects is constrained by various biological and physical factors. Here are some key limitations:

1. Exoskeleton: Insects have an exoskeleton made of a rigid material called chitin. As they grow, they need to molt and shed their exoskeleton to accommodate a larger size. This process becomes more challenging as the insect gets larger due to the increased structural demands.

2. Respiratory System: Insects rely on a system of tiny tubes called tracheae for respiration. As they grow larger, the surface area available for gas exchange becomes insufficient, limiting their ability to provide oxygen to all cells effectively.

3. Muscle Efficiency: The efficiency of muscle function decreases as insects get larger. The relationship between muscle strength and size is not linear, and larger insects may face challenges in coordinated movement and efficient muscle function.

4. Metabolic Rate: Larger insects might struggle to meet the metabolic demands associated with increased body size. Efficient energy utilization becomes a limiting factor, affecting overall viability.

5. Predation: Larger insects may become more vulnerable to predators. Their size makes them easier targets, and the advantages of being smaller, such as agility and concealment, become essential for survival.

6. Feeding Efficiency: As insects grow larger, their feeding efficiency might decrease. The energy required to forage for food may surpass the energy gained from the food itself.

7. Developmental Constraints: The developmental processes of molting and metamorphosis, which are integral to an insect’s life cycle, impose limitations on the attainable size.

8. Environmental Conditions: In certain environments, such as those with limited oxygen concentration, larger insects might struggle to obtain sufficient oxygen, further restricting their size.

9. Evolutionary Trade-offs: Evolutionary pressures may favor smaller sizes in certain ecological niches due to trade-offs between size, reproductive strategies, and adaptation to specific environments.


• Chapman, R. F., Simpson, S. J., & Douglas, A. E. (2013). The Insects: Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press.

Limitations of size for Animals Living in Water:

1. Buoyancy: Water provides buoyancy, supporting the weight of aquatic organisms. This allows for the existence of much larger animals in water compared to on land, where the gravitational pull is a more significant constraint.

2. Respiration: Aquatic animals often have gills, enabling efficient extraction of oxygen from water. This allows for a more effective respiratory system, potentially sustaining larger body sizes.

3. Swimming Efficiency: The streamlined shape and reduced effects of gravity in water allow for efficient movement, enabling larger sizes for aquatic animals. Whales, for example, are among the largest animals on Earth and are adapted to life in the oceans.

4. Food Availability: Water ecosystems can support larger populations of prey items, providing a more abundant food supply for predators. This abundance can contribute to the development of larger species.

5. Temperature Regulation: Water provides a more stable environment for temperature regulation. This stability can support larger animals that might face challenges related to temperature fluctuation on land.


• Alexander, R. McN. (2006). Principles of Animal Locomotion. Princeton University Press.

• Vogel, S. (1994). Life in Moving Fluids: The Physical Biology of Flow. Princeton University Press.

The concept of an animal growing 10 times its natural size in fiction, using a lot of Handwavium!

1. Extreme Nutrient Density: An exceptionally nutrient-dense food source could potentially fuel rapid and substantial growth in an animal. This might include a novel substance with highly concentrated essential nutrients that the animal can efficiently assimilate.

2. Genetic Modification: In a fictional context, genetic modification or engineering could play a role. Introducing genes that enhance growth, metabolism, or nutrient absorption might result in animals reaching sizes beyond their natural limits.

3. Magical or Extraterrestrial Influence: In a fantastical setting, magical elements or extraterrestrial factors could be introduced. For example, exposure to a magical substance or an extraterrestrial nutrient could trigger extraordinary growth in the animal.

4. Biological Anomaly: A rare biological anomaly or mutation that dramatically increases an animal’s growth rate could be part of the fictional narrative. This could involve an unexpected interaction between the animal’s genetics and a specific type of food.

5. Artificial Growth Stimulants: In a speculative scenario, the presence of artificial growth stimulants, either intentionally or accidentally introduced into the animal’s environment, could lead to accelerated growth.

Various mythologies, religions and fictions around the world feature giant animals, often portraying them as powerful, mythical beings or creatures with extraordinary abilities. Here are some examples:

1. Jormungandr (Norse Mythology): Jormungandr, also known as the Midgard Serpent, is a giant sea serpent in Norse mythology. It is said to encircle the Earth, grasping its tail in its mouth. According to prophecy, Jormungandr will play a significant role in the events leading to Ragnarok, the end of the world.

2. Nemean Lion (Greek Mythology): In Greek mythology, the Nemean Lion was a colossal, supernatural lion with an impenetrable golden fur. It was one of the Labors of Hercules to defeat this fierce lion.

3. Kaiju (Japanese Mythology/Fiction): While not strictly part of ancient mythology, Japanese kaiju are giant monsters often featured in modern fiction and films. Examples include Godzilla, Mothra, and Rodan, representing colossal creatures with destructive powers.

4. Garuda (Hindu and Buddhist Mythology): Garuda is a mythical bird or bird-like creature in Hindu and Buddhist traditions. It is often depicted as large, with the ability to carry off elephants. Garuda is a divine companion of the god Vishnu.

5. Fenghuang (Chinese Mythology): The Fenghuang, also known as the Chinese Phoenix, is a mythical bird in Chinese mythology. It is often described as a giant and colorful bird with various supernatural abilities, symbolizing grace and longevity.

6. Yamata no Orochi (Japanese Mythology): Yamata no Orochi is an eight-headed and eight-tailed dragon or serpent in Japanese mythology. It was defeated by the storm god Susanoo, and one of its tails contained the legendary sword Kusanagi.

7. Bunyip (Australian Aboriginal Mythology): The bunyip is a mythical creature from Australian Aboriginal mythology, often described as a large, amphibious monster inhabiting waterholes, rivers, and swamps.

8. Simurgh (Persian Mythology): The Simurgh is a mythical bird-like creature in Persian mythology. It is often portrayed as a large, benevolent bird with magnificent plumage, sometimes said to possess healing powers.

Okay, that’s it for this episode. How’d we do?

You can always email (I do answer back), click the comment link below, or follow me online for real time tracking.

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Rabbit Hole of Research Podcast Episode 3: Villains Show Notes

Show notes:

This has no particular format (yet), just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always feel free to comment and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy:

Leave a comment


Leave a comment


Show Art by Georgia Geis

Story grid: Thriller Genre is a mash-up of Horror, Action, and Crime 

Sea of Rust: C. Robert Cargill

Terminator 2: Actor who played the scientist: Joe Morton “Dr. Miles” 


Superman I (1978); and Superman II (1980)

Short Story about wealthy people hunting poor people:

1924 short story “The Most Dangerous Game” by Richard Connell

“Surviving the Game” (1994) staring Ice-T[]

Fritz Haber-German scientist 1908 for synthesis of ammonia (Nobel prize in chemistry 1918)—dual edge sword—also know as father of chemical warfare.

Back to Future (1985): Cultural insensitivity

What is a villain?

Random House Unabridged Dictionary defines such a character as “a cruelly malicious person who is involved in or devoted to wickedness or crime; scoundrel; or a character in a play, novel, or the like, who constitutes an important evil agency in the plot.”

The opposite of a villain is a hero. The villain’s structural purpose is to serve as the opposition of the hero character and their motives or evil actions drive a plot along. 

In contrast to the hero, who is defined by feats of ingenuity and bravery and the pursuit of justice and the greater good, a villain is often defined by their acts of selfishness, evilness, arrogance, cruelty, and cunning, displaying immoral behavior that can oppose or pervert justice

People like to love villains they relate with

Research suggests that you like villains who remind us of ourselves. 

Study published in 2020 Psychological Science, Rebecca Krause, at Northwestern University: Krause, R. J., & Rucker, D. D. (2020). Can bad be good? The attraction of a darker self. Psychological Science.

Humans hardwired to find goodness in villains

A recent study from Aarhus University found those who prefer fictional villains to heroes are more likely to be villainous themselves.

Valerie A. Umscheid, Craig E. Smith, Felix Warneken, Susan A. Gelman, Henry M. Wellman, What makes Voldemort tick? Children’s and adults’ reasoning about the nature of villains. Cognition,Volume 233, 2023

The results revealed that, overall, both children and adults believed that villains’ true selves were ‘overwhelmingly evil and much more negative than heroes’.

However, researchers also detected an asymmetry in the views, as villains were much more likely than heroes to have a true self that differed to their outer personna.

The research found that those who prefer villains such as Cruella de Vil and Darth Vader, are more likely to display the ‘dark triad‘ (Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) personality traits.

Dark Triad:

‘Narcissism describes a grandiose and entitled interpersonal style whereby one feels superior to others and craves validation (‘ego-reinforcement’),’ the researchers write.

‘Machiavellianism describes a manipulative interpersonal style characterized by duplicity, cynicism, and selfish ambition.

‘Psychopathy describes low self-control and a callous interpersonal style aimed at immediate gratification.

Thanks for spending time with us. You can always email (I do answer back), click the comment link below, or follow me online for real time tracking. Until next time…


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Rabbit Hole of Research Podcast Episode 2: AI Show Notes

Episode 2: The Show Notes

This has no particular format, just correcting or updating anything in the show we didn’t get a chance to fully talk about or things we had on the tips of our tongues and couldn’t get out as we recorded. As always feel free to comment and we will address stuff in future shows! Enjoy:

What we drinking:

Joe: Riot: Revolution Brewery

Nick: Foeder Fiend Three Floyd’s

Let us know:

What do you think about AI?

Any questions we didn’t cover?

What did we get wrong (Check the show notes)?

Leave a comment



Show notes:

Algorithms bias in medical

Chat bot on social media

AI Fashion model week

Anti-AI clothing

Artist using Anti-AI digital image protection:

UChicago scientists develop new tool protect artists

New tools help artists fight AI by directly disrupting the systems

Protection against facial recognition in digital photos 

AI math 

Affective Computing

Self driving cars and google search misidentify POC because of training data

Self driving car racial bias

Google racist gorillas photo recognition algorithm

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Rabbit Hole of Research Podcast Episode 1: Gaba’s Girl Show Notes

Welcome to Episode 1 Show Notes:

This is a collection of stuff that we didn’t get to in the show or talked about in the show briefly. We try to include links when possible and connecting our research paths. Maybe in future we will have a better organization system, but for now enjoy the Rabbit Hole of Show Notes!

Let us know:

What do you think about Gaba and the history of reanimation?

Any questions we didn’t cover?

What did we get wrong (read the show note first)?

Leave a comment


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The Show Notes:

Lester Gaba:

Who is Lester Gaba

Lester the first mannequin influencer

Some Terms:

Robotsexuality-term for falling in love with robot. 

Lovotics refers to the research of human-to-robot relationship. (Lando and L3-37)

Books/Movies reanimation rabbit hole:

Mannequin-Kim Cattrall

Frankenstein– 1818

Weird Science

Ex Machina

Real life reanimation experimenters :

  1. Luigi Galvani-1780
    1. First to show that electrical signals could move freshly dissected frog legs. 
    2. During a dissection a metal look touched the muscle and the frog twitches like it would hop away. Galvani said this was caused by a special muscle viral fluid—animal electricity. 
  2. Alessandro Volta (credited with inventing the battery and field of electrochemistry), 1782, disagreed and said any electricity could produce a similar effect. And Volta started testing this on all sorts of dead things. 
  3. Giovanni Aldini
    1. Galvani was at the end of his career, so his nephew took up the charge against Volta. After the hanging of a man named George Foster (drowned his wife and kid in a canal), the body went to the lab of Giovanni. 
    2. During a demonstration he soaped and salted the man’s ears and connected him to electrodes. As he passed a current through the man his face and mouth started to twitch. 
    3. A reporter noted, “ On the first application of the process to the face, the jaws of the deceased criminal began to quiver, and the adjoining muscles were horribly contorted, and one eye was actually opened. In the subsequent part of the process the right hand was raised and clenched, and the legs and thighs were set in motion.”
    4. It was decided by the government that if George did come back to life he should be hung again. 
  4. Andrew Ure
    1. Experimented on hanged convicts—up to 300He would draw a crowd and shock different body part to make them twitch and please the crowd. Not really answering any scientific questions. “Every muscle of the body was immediately agitated with convulsive movements resembling a violent shuddering from cold. . . On moving the second rod from hip to heel, the knee being previously bent, the leg was thrown out with such violence as nearly to overturn one of the assistants, who in vain tried to prevent its extension. The body was also made to perform the movements of breathing by stimulating the phrenic nerve and the diaphragm.”“When the supraorbital nerve was excited ‘every muscle in his countenance was simultaneously thrown into fearful action; rage, horror, despair, anguish, and ghastly smiles, united their hideous expressions in the murderer’s face, surpassing far the wildest representations of Fuseli or a Kean. At this period several of the spectators were forced to leave the apartment from terror or sickness, and one gentleman fainted.”Eventually things got boring and the church was threading to shut him down afraid that he was summoning devils. In time, he gave up the reanimation efforts, correctly concluding it was a waste of his time, and then turned his attention to more productive pursuits, such as revolutionizing the way volumes are measured and with being the first to describe a bi-metallic thermostat.
    Early 1920’s Russian experiments
  5. Sergei Bryukhonenko was a scientist living in Russia during the Revolution who invented what he called an “autojektor,” or the heart-lung machine. These exist today, and Bryukhonenko’s design was fundamentally sound, but it’s the way he tested it that’s creepy.
    1. During his early experiments, Bryukhonenko decapitated a dog and immediately connected it to his machine, which drew out blood from the veins and circulated it through a filter for oxygenation. According to his paper, Bryukhonenko kept the dog’s severed head alive and responsive for over an hour and a half, before blood clots built up and killed the dog on the table.
    2. According to the Soviet Congress of Science, Bryukhonenko actually managed reanimating of a human in 1930. 
    3. Given the hours-dead corpse of a man who had committed suicide, the team plugged his body up to the autojektor and pushed a witches’ brew of odd chemicals into his bloodstream.
    4. They opened his chest cavity, administered a mix of chemicals and got a steady rhythm. The man then started to groan and move, this freaked everyone out and they shut down the experiment letting the man did for good. 
  6. Today: Luigi Galvani initial work is the basis for Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses


Please don’t try to reanimate things in your living room.


galvanism — the idea that electricity could reanimate dead tissue

in honour of his pioneering work his name was given to the unit of electrical potential, the Volt.

In 1751, England passed the Murder Act, which allowed the bodies of executed murderers to be used for experimentation and scientific study.\_Act\_1751

Andrew Ure was Scottish and performed his experiment on a hanged convict (Matthew Clydesdale) in 1818. After experiment did describe a device that would later be the basis for the defibrillator. 

Mary Shelley was surrounded and influenced by science demonstrations (Galvani, Volta and Aldini were friends of Mary’s father), but some speculate that Mary Shelley used Ure as a model for her main character in the book, Frankenstein (1818).

Operating theater or operating room, is a facility where surgical procedures are performed . Historically, operating theaters where actually an amphitheater and a source of education and entertainment, often with “music and festive atmosphere…”

Research on using electrodes to give amputees Restoring the sense of touch in amputees – Today’s Medical Developments

More reanimating attempts not mentioned:

Another scientists in the field of reanimation i failed to mention was Robert E. Cornish, an American biologist who studied at the University of California Berkeley. Cornish who reportedly managed to revive two dogs by rocking them back and forth to move blood around while injecting the animals with a mixture of anticoagulants and steroids. When Cornish announced he was ready to perform his experiment on humans, a California death-row inmate, Thomas McMonigle, volunteered his body post-execution, but the State of California denied his request.

Zvonimir Vrseljal et al, April 2019 Nature. Revive pig brain 4-hours post-mortem

Organ X maintains life and raises questions about what it means to be dead. 

Other Rabbit Holes:

And you may be wondering about cryonics (I wrote a newsletter about this Hey baby it’s cold outside. Let’s stay in and talk Cryonics!), and we still have no idea how to revive a frozen body, but research is ongoing

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